Supination Resistance

Supination Resistance is a concept of determining the force needed to supinate the foot. This is considered important in foot orthotic prescribing as it is helpful to determine how much force if needed from the foot orthotic if the foot is overpronating.


Most Useful Resources: (PodiaPaedia) (Podiatry Arena) (Podiatry Arena) (Running Research Junkie) (Podiatry FAQ) (iPodiatry)


Jacks Test

Jacks Test is a test of how hard it is to dorsiflex the hallux when weightbearing, so is a test of the integrity of the windlass mechanism. It is known at the Hubscher maneuver in the USA

Most Useful Resources:
Jacks Test (Foot Health Forum)
Jacks Test (Podiapaedia)
Jacks Test and failure of STJ supination with ext tibia rotation (Podiatry Arena)
Is Jacks test valid? (Podiatry Arena)
The Hubscher maneuver or Jacks test? (Podiatry Ninja)
Jacks Test (Bunion Surgery)

Foot Posture Index

Foot Posture Index is a composite measure of the posture of the foot based on 6 different observations of the alignment or posture of different segments of the foot.

Most Useful Resources:
Foot Posture Index (Foot Health Forum)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry TV)
The Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Update)
Foot Posture Index (Clinical Boot Camp)
Foot Posture Index (PodiaPaedia)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Arena)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Arena)

Forefoot Supinatus

Forefoot supinatus is a common foot type in which the forefoot is inverted relative to the rearfoot. In comparison o a bony foefoot varus, the supinatus is a soft tissue contracture.

Most Useful Resources:
Forefoot Supinatus (PodiaPaedia)
Help needed with forefoot supinatus? (Podiatry Arena)
Forefoot Supinatus (Foot Health Forum)
Student with questions on forefoot varus and supinatus (Podiatry Arena)
The effect of forefoot varus on the hip and knee and the effect of the hip and knee on forefoot supinatus … (Running Research Junkie)

The Determinants of Gait

The Determinants of Gait are the biomechanical strategies that the body uses in order to maintain the center of gravity in the horizontal plane, as well as increase efficiency and to decrease the expenditure of energy when walking and running

Most Useful Resources:
Determinants of gait (Foot Health Forum)
Determinants of gait discredited? (Podiatry Arena)
The Determinants of gait (Podiatry Arena)
Determinants of Gait (PodiaPaedia)
Determinants of Gait (Podiatry TV)
The Six Determinants of Gait (Podiatry Ninja)

Cluffy Wedge

The Cluffy wedge is a pad that is places under the great toe to hold it in a slightly dorsiflexed position. It is designed to treat functional hallux limitus and problems with the windlass mechanism.

Most Useful Resources:
Cluffy Wedge (Foot Health Forum)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Arena)
Cluffy Wedge (Clinical Biomechanics Bootcamp)
Cluffy Wedge (PodiaPaedia)
The Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Update)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Experts)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry TV)


‘Overpronation’ is generally accepted as being the foot rolling inwards at the ankle or rearfoot joints. There is a lot of controversy about the use of the term; just how much of a risk factor for injury it is; if it should be treated or not; and what the best treatment for it should be.


Most Useful Resources:
Overpronation (Foot Health Forum)
Overpronation in Runners (Podiatry Update)
Overpronation (Podiatry Online TV)
How do you treat overpronation? (Podiatry Experts)
My Advice if you Overpronate (Running Injury Advice)
Overpronation (Dr the Foot Without the Dr)
‘Overpronation’ (Podiatry CPD)
Pronation Mythology (Its a foot, Captain)
The nonsensical understanding of ‘overpronation’ (Run Research Junkie)
Is Overpronation a Problem? (Clinical Boot Camp)
“Biomechanics Corner”: Overpronation (Podiatry Arena)
Overpronation (Foot Info)
Overpronation (Podiatry Daily)

The Abductory Twist During Gait

An abductory twist is a reasonable common observation during a gait analysis and is caused by a number of different things. It is commonly associated with ‘overpronation‘. It is seen as a sudden abduction or whip of the heel medially (abduction) just as the heel comes off the ground. See this video for what it looks like:

Most Useful Resources:
Biomechanics of abductory twist (Foot Health Forum)
The abductory twist (Podiatry Update)
Abductory Twist (Podiatry Online TV)
The doc said I have an abductory twist… ? (Podiatry Experts)
My advice if you have an abductory twist (Running Injury Advice)
The Medial Heel Whip (Physio Ninja)
An Abductory Twist (Dr the Foot Without the Dr)

The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation

The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation is a small booklet authored by Eddy Wietscher and published by the Open Study Group.

Most Useful Resources:
The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation (PodiaPaedia)

Muscle Strength and Arch Height

There is apparently a lot of controversy on the roles of muscles and muscle strength on the height of the arch in the foot. Almost all of the research shows that there is no relationship between muscle strength and arch height; no relationship between overpronation and muscle strength; and the evidence also shows that foot orthotics do not weaken the muscles neither. There is really no controversy, the evidence is clear.

Most Useful Resources:
Foot Arches and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Overpronation and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Foot Orthotics and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Increase in muscle strength with foot orthotic use (Podiatry Arena)
Do foot orthoses weaken “arch” muscles? (Podiatry Arena)
Do Foot Orthoses Weaken Feet/Legs? (Podiatry Arena)