Supination Resistance

Supination Resistance is a concept of determining the force needed to supinate the foot. This is considered important in foot orthotic prescribing as it is helpful to determine how much force if needed from the foot orthotic if the foot is overpronating.


Most Useful Resources: (PodiaPaedia) (Podiatry Arena) (Podiatry Arena) (Running Research Junkie) (Podiatry FAQ) (iPodiatry)


Magnetic Insoles

Magnetic Insoles are pseudoscience nonsense. They are insole with magnets that have made up claims about the health benefits of walking around on magnets.

Most Useful Resources:
Magnetic insoles ineffective for nonspecific foot pain in the workplace (Podiatry Arena)
Magnetic Insoles (PodiaPaedia)
Magnetic Insoles = Snake Oil (Foot Health Friday)
Magnetic Insoles (Foot Health Forum)
Do magnetic insoles work? (Dr The Foot Without the Doctor)
Magnetic Insoles are a Scam (The Best Running Shoe)
M is for Magnetic Insoles (Podiatry ABC)


The feet are crucial in golf. They are used to walk around on all day and a the platform or foundation that the golf swing starts from.

Most Useful Resources:
Golf Threads (Podiatry Arena)
Golf and foot orthotics (PodiaPaedia)
Golf (Podiatry TV)
Golfshot (Podiatry Apps)
Foot Orthotics for Golf (Podiatry Update)

Jacks Test

Jacks Test is a test of how hard it is to dorsiflex the hallux when weightbearing, so is a test of the integrity of the windlass mechanism. It is known at the Hubscher maneuver in the USA

Most Useful Resources:
Jacks Test (Foot Health Forum)
Jacks Test (Podiapaedia)
Jacks Test and failure of STJ supination with ext tibia rotation (Podiatry Arena)
Is Jacks test valid? (Podiatry Arena)
The Hubscher maneuver or Jacks test? (Podiatry Ninja)
Jacks Test (Bunion Surgery)

Foot Posture Index

Foot Posture Index is a composite measure of the posture of the foot based on 6 different observations of the alignment or posture of different segments of the foot.

Most Useful Resources:
Foot Posture Index (Foot Health Forum)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry TV)
The Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Update)
Foot Posture Index (Clinical Boot Camp)
Foot Posture Index (PodiaPaedia)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Arena)
Foot Posture Index (Podiatry Arena)

The Determinants of Gait

The Determinants of Gait are the biomechanical strategies that the body uses in order to maintain the center of gravity in the horizontal plane, as well as increase efficiency and to decrease the expenditure of energy when walking and running

Most Useful Resources:
Determinants of gait (Foot Health Forum)
Determinants of gait discredited? (Podiatry Arena)
The Determinants of gait (Podiatry Arena)
Determinants of Gait (PodiaPaedia)
Determinants of Gait (Podiatry TV)
The Six Determinants of Gait (Podiatry Ninja)

Cluffy Wedge

The Cluffy wedge is a pad that is places under the great toe to hold it in a slightly dorsiflexed position. It is designed to treat functional hallux limitus and problems with the windlass mechanism.

Most Useful Resources:
Cluffy Wedge (Foot Health Forum)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Arena)
Cluffy Wedge (Clinical Biomechanics Bootcamp)
Cluffy Wedge (PodiaPaedia)
The Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Update)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Experts)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry TV)


‘Overpronation’ is generally accepted as being the foot rolling inwards at the ankle or rearfoot joints. There is a lot of controversy about the use of the term; just how much of a risk factor for injury it is; if it should be treated or not; and what the best treatment for it should be.


Most Useful Resources:
Overpronation (Foot Health Forum)
Overpronation in Runners (Podiatry Update)
Overpronation (Podiatry Online TV)
How do you treat overpronation? (Podiatry Experts)
My Advice if you Overpronate (Running Injury Advice)
Overpronation (Dr the Foot Without the Dr)
‘Overpronation’ (Podiatry CPD)
Pronation Mythology (Its a foot, Captain)
The nonsensical understanding of ‘overpronation’ (Run Research Junkie)
Is Overpronation a Problem? (Clinical Boot Camp)
“Biomechanics Corner”: Overpronation (Podiatry Arena)
Overpronation (Foot Info)
Overpronation (Podiatry Daily)

Accessory Navicular

The accessory navicular is an extra bone on the medial side of the navicular that can cause pain due to pressure on the lump from footwear (especially things like ice skates) and also be a factor in flat or overpronated feet due to changes in the pull of the tendon from the muscle that is the main supporter of the arch of the foot.

Most Useful Resources:
Accessory Navicular (PodiaPaedia)
Surgery for accessory navicular (Podiatry Arena)
Accessory navicular (Podiatry Arena)
Classification of the Accessory Navicular (Podiatry Ninja)
Accessory Navicular (Foot Health Forum)

Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates in Runners

There is a lot of debate online about which is the best running technique for a runner to use. One of the more common debates is about the foot strike pattern and if it should be forefoot, midfoot or heel striking the ground first. The bulk of the evidence does not support one over the other.

Most Useful Resources:
Foot Strike Pattern and Running Injury (PodiaPaedia)
Foot Strike Pattern and Injury Rates (Running Research Junkie)
Its six of one and half a dozen of the other: Rearfoot vs Forefoot striking when running (Running Research Junkie)
Emerging Evidence on Footstrike Patterns in Running (Podiatry Arena)
Running Footstrike: Rearfoot, Midfoot or Forefoot, Which is Best? (Podiatry Arena)
New studies on injury rates between forefoot and rearfoot striking (Podiatry Arena)