Supination Resistance

Supination Resistance is a concept of determining the force needed to supinate the foot. This is considered important in foot orthotic prescribing as it is helpful to determine how much force if needed from the foot orthotic if the foot is overpronating.


Most Useful Resources: (PodiaPaedia) (Podiatry Arena) (Podiatry Arena) (Running Research Junkie) (Podiatry FAQ) (iPodiatry)


Kinetic Wedge

The kinetic wedge is an extension that can be used on the front part of the foot orthotic to assist in the clinical management of of functional hallux limitus.

Most Useful Resources:
Kinetic Wedge (Foot Health Forum)
What is the Kinetic Wedge? (Foot Health Friday)
Kinetic Wedge (Podiapaedia)
Kinetic Wedges: Question (Podiatry Arena)
Kinetic Wedge Threads (Podiatry Arena)

Cluffy Wedge

The Cluffy wedge is a pad that is places under the great toe to hold it in a slightly dorsiflexed position. It is designed to treat functional hallux limitus and problems with the windlass mechanism.

Most Useful Resources:
Cluffy Wedge (Foot Health Forum)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Arena)
Cluffy Wedge (Clinical Biomechanics Bootcamp)
Cluffy Wedge (PodiaPaedia)
The Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Update)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry Experts)
Cluffy Wedge (Podiatry TV)

Cycling and Foot Orthotics

Foot orthotics for cycling play an important role in getting the correct interface between the foot, shoe and pedal. It helps with performance, management of injury and prevention of injury.

Most Useful Resources:
Cycling (PodiaPaedia)
Cycling (Podiatry TV)
Cycling Threads (Podiatry Arena)
Cycling (Foot Health Forum)
Cycling Orthotics (Podiatry Arena)
Foot Orthotics and Cycling (Podiatry Update)
Foot problems in cyclists (Foot Health Friday)
Set up of the cycle for injury prevention (Physio Ninja)


‘Overpronation’ is generally accepted as being the foot rolling inwards at the ankle or rearfoot joints. There is a lot of controversy about the use of the term; just how much of a risk factor for injury it is; if it should be treated or not; and what the best treatment for it should be.


Most Useful Resources:
Overpronation (Foot Health Forum)
Overpronation in Runners (Podiatry Update)
Overpronation (Podiatry Online TV)
How do you treat overpronation? (Podiatry Experts)
My Advice if you Overpronate (Running Injury Advice)
Overpronation (Dr the Foot Without the Dr)
‘Overpronation’ (Podiatry CPD)
Pronation Mythology (Its a foot, Captain)
The nonsensical understanding of ‘overpronation’ (Run Research Junkie)
Is Overpronation a Problem? (Clinical Boot Camp)
“Biomechanics Corner”: Overpronation (Podiatry Arena)
Overpronation (Foot Info)
Overpronation (Podiatry Daily)

Barefoot Science

Barefoot Science is a foot strengthening insole system that has been widely criticized for the lack of science that supports them; the unsubstantiated claims they make; and the claims they make that are contradicted by the evidence.

Most Useful Resources:
Barefoot Science (PodiaPaedia)
Barefoot Science (Podiatry Arena)
Barefoot Science Foot Strengthening System (Podiatry Arena)
What about Barefoot science insoles? (Podiatry Experts)
‘Barefoot Science’ Insoles (Running Research Junkie)
Barefoot Science (Foot Health Forum)

The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation

The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation is a small booklet authored by Eddy Wietscher and published by the Open Study Group.

Most Useful Resources:
The Pathomechanics of Abnormal Pronation (PodiaPaedia)

Dr Merton Root, DPM

Dr Merton Root, DPM (1922–2002) is widely considered the ‘father’ of clinical biomechanics in podiatry and the theory (‘Root theory’) that largely underpins the use of foot orthotic is mostly based on his original concepts.

Most Useful Resources:
Merton L. Root (PodiaPaedia)
Root Theory (PodiaPaedia)
Root Functional Orthotic (PodiaPaedia)
The wit and wisdom of … Merton Root (Podiatry Arena)

The Mueller TPD Foot Orthotic

The Mueller TPD Foot Orthotic is a particular foot orthotic design originally developed by Terrance J Mueller DPM to specifically treaty posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. This foot orthotic typically has a deep heel cup and medial and lateral flanges to limit transverse plane motion.

Most Useful Resources:
Mueller TPD Foot Orthoses (PodiaPaedia)
Mueller TPD Orthotic info (Podiatry Arena)

Muscle Strength and Arch Height

There is apparently a lot of controversy on the roles of muscles and muscle strength on the height of the arch in the foot. Almost all of the research shows that there is no relationship between muscle strength and arch height; no relationship between overpronation and muscle strength; and the evidence also shows that foot orthotics do not weaken the muscles neither. There is really no controversy, the evidence is clear.

Most Useful Resources:
Foot Arches and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Overpronation and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Foot Orthotics and Muscle Strength (PodiaPaedia)
Increase in muscle strength with foot orthotic use (Podiatry Arena)
Do foot orthoses weaken “arch” muscles? (Podiatry Arena)
Do Foot Orthoses Weaken Feet/Legs? (Podiatry Arena)